Agricultural Revolution : Definition, Various, Causes, Consequences


Agricultural Revolution Definition

The Agricultural Revolution refers to the transformation experienced by agriculture and livestock, due to technological advances. This transformation takes place between the 18th and 19th centuries, in the middle of the Industrial Revolution

The Agricultural Revolution, therefore, is nothing more than the transformation that agriculture and livestock experienced by implementing a more favorable regulation, as well as the use of techniques and mechanisms that favored greater production. This profound transformation took place especially in Europe and, more specifically, in Great Britain. The beginning of the transformation begins in the 18th century, with the arrival of the Industrial Revolution, and ends in the 19th century.

This phenomenon allowed the increase in production and, therefore, the origin of the surplus. In this way, a greater commercialization was promoted, as well as a greater professionalization of this sector.

The machinery and the use of techniques, as we mentioned, was not the only cause that unleashed this transformation. Thus, the regulation, more favorable to landowners, encouraged investment and, therefore, a revolutionary change.

Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution

The fact that the Agricultural Revolution is so important is because it develops simultaneously with the Industrial Revolution. This allowed what is known in economics as the "hummingbird effect" to occur. In other words, the sectors (agriculture and livestock) benefited from a change that began in the factories and, as the name suggests, in the industry.

Therefore, we cannot explain this phenomenon without understanding that we are talking about one more consequence of the Industrial Revolution. Changes in regulation, the implementation of machinery and technological tools, in addition to a professionalization of the sector, make it possible for this revolution to materialize in the economy.

Various agricultural revolutions

Before continuing, we must know that, throughout history, agriculture has undergone various transformation processes. Therefore, although we highlight the Agricultural Revolution, prior to it there were profound transformation processes that also receive a similar name.

Among these, the following should be highlighted:

  • Neolithic Revolution : This being the passage from hunting-gathering to agriculture in the Neolithic period.
  • Agricultural Revolution of Islam : Between the 8th and 13th centuries brought numerous advances in irrigation systems, for example.
  • Feudal Agricultural Revolution : Implements the use of techniques that encouraged increased production.
  • Green Revolution : It refers to a movement that begins in 1943, with a new trend that promotes more ecological agriculture.

Causes of the Agricultural Revolution

Among the causes that motivated this phenomenon to happen, we must highlight the following:

  • Development of tools and new technologies that allowed increasing production.
  • Development of techniques and mechanisms that professionalized the sector.
  • New laws and regulations that encouraged investment by owners.
  • New fertilizers and seeds that promoted a higher quality in production.
  • New crops that increased supply , and encouraged trade.
  • Simultaneous development of other sectors, with the Industrial Revolution.

Consequences of the Agricultural Revolution

On the other hand, these causes led to a series of consequences, and the following should be highlighted:

  • Substantial increase in productivity (90%).
  • Increase in production .
  • Professionalization of the agricultural sector.
  • Taking advantage of economies of scale .
  • Development of qualified employment in the sector.
  • Development of trade by the largest surplus.
  • Improvement in well-being, due to greater economic activity .
  • Greater access for the population, by reducing prices due to a greater supply.

What changes did the Agricultural Revolution bring?

Among the changes brought about by the agricultural revolution, we can highlight the following:

  • Fencing of farmland and fields, thereby promoting investment.
  • Technological advances that allowed the implantation of machinery in the sector.
  • New techniques that encouraged higher production, such as crop rotation.
  • New fertilizers and seeds that maximized production.
  • New forms of organization and economic management.
  • Improvements in irrigation systems, making use of technical improvements.  

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